Distributive Justice
The fairness of how benefits and burdens are distributed or divided among several people or groups.

The collective mixture of differences and similarities that includes individual and organizational characteristics, values, beliefs, experiences, backgrounds, and behaviors. It encompasses our personal and professional histories that frame how we see the world, collaborate with colleagues and stakeholders, and serve communities (CommonHealth ACTION, adapted from Washington State Human Resources).

The process of improving human population by controlled breeding; used by FHA (Federal Housing Association) to control the homogeneity of white families in neighborhoods

1) Of the same measure, quantity, amount, or number as another. 2) Regarding or affecting all objects in the same way (Merriam-Webster, n.d.).

Equal treatment that may or may not result in equitable outcomes (Xavier University, n.d.).

Providing all people with fair opportunities to attain their full potential to the extent possible (CommonHealth ACTION, adapted from Braveman and Gruskin, 2003).

Equity Lens
The lens through which you view conditions and circumstances to assess who experiences burdens as the results of a program, policy, or practice (CommonHealth ACTION).

Gender Inequality
The idea and situation that men and women are not equal. Gender inequality acknowledges the different treatment or perceptions of individuals wholly or partly due to their gender. It arises from differences in biology, psychology, and cultural norms.

Health Disparities
The differences in the rates of disease and health status among groups of people. Most health disparities are the result of poor living and work conditions or discrimination related to socioeconomic status, age, race or ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, disability status, geographic location or a combination of these factors.

Health Equity
When all people can attain their full health potential and no one is limited in achieving good health because of their social position or any other social determinant of health.

Heath in All Policies (HiAP)
An approach to public policies across sectors that systematically takes into account the health implications of decisions, seeks synergies, and avoids harmful health impacts in order to improve population health and health equity (World Health Organization).

Health Inequity
The result when disparities, or differences are combined with conditions that are unfair, unjust and avoidable.

Implicit Bias
The attitudes, beliefs and stereotypes we have towards people without our conscious knowledge. They affect our understanding, actions, and decisions unconsciously and can encompass favorable and non-favorable assessments (Perception Institute, Kirwan Institute).

The term inclusion captures, in one word, an all-embracing societal ideology.

IHI is an independent not-for-profit organization based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. IHI is a leading innovator in health and health care improvement worldwide.

The interaction between gender, race, and other categories of difference in individual lives, social practices, institutional arrangements, and cultural ideologies and the outcomes of these interactions in terms of power (Davis, 2008).

Systems of privilege and oppression based on social identities, including but not limited to: race (racism), sex (sexism), class (classism), age (ageism), ability (ableism), and sexuality (heterosexism). All are rooted in doctrines of superiority and inferiority; find systemic expression in individual, institutional, as well as cultural forms; and function through the dynamics of power and privilege. These common elements are often expressed in the equation PREJUDICE + POWER = OPPRESSION. Systems of privilege and oppression are not discrete and are experienced in interactive and overlapping ways (CommonHealth ACTION, adapted from Xavier University, n.d.).

The Kerner Commission 
Released in March 1968 (identified prominent cause for growing racial inequality as residential segregation)

The systematic targeting or marginalization of one group by a more powerful group for social, economic, and political benefit of the more powerful group (OpenSource Leadership Strategies, n.d.).

Perspective Transformation
The process of becoming critically aware of how and why our assumptions have come to constrain the way we perceive, understand, and feel about our world; changing these structures of habitual expectation to make possible a more inclusive, non-discriminating, and integrating perspective; and finally, making choices or otherwise acting upon these new understandings (Mezirow, 1978).

A judgment or opinion, usually but not always negative, formed on insufficient grounds before facts are known or in disregard of facts that contradict it. Prejudices are learned and can be unlearned (CommonHealth ACTION, adapted from American Medical Students Association, n.d.).

When one group has something of value that is denied to others simply because of the groups they belong to, rather than because of anything they have done or failed to do. Dominant group members may be unaware of their privilege or take it for granted (McIntosh, 2000).

A specified set of activities combined according to precise guidance in order to achieve a specific purpose (National Institute of Justice, n.d.).

A law, regulation, procedure, administrative action, incentive, or voluntary practice of governments and institutions (CDC, n.d.).

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

1) A belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities, and that differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race (Merriam-Webster). 2) Racism = Race Prejudice + the misuse of power in systems and institutions (The People’s Institute for Survival and Beyond, n.d.).

Racial Anxiety
The heightened levels of stress and emotion that a person may feel when interacting with people of other races. (Perception Institute).

Separate Fates Thinking
The notion that separate experiences lead to thinking that the consequences for one person are not shared consequences for all (Frameworks Institute).

prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls. Sexism in a society is most commonly applied against women and girls. It functions to maintain patriarchy, or male domination, through ideological and material practices of individuals, collectives, and institutions that oppress women and girls on the basis of sex or gender. Such oppression usually takes the forms of economic exploitation and social domination. Sexist behaviors, conditions, and attitudes perpetuate stereotypes of social (gender) roles based on one’s biological sex.

Something conforming to a fixed or general pattern; especially: a standardized mental picture that is held in common by members of a group and that represents an oversimplified opinion, prejudiced
attitude, or uncritical judgment (Merriam-Webster).

Stereotype Threat
When a person worries that their behavior may confirm stereotypes about a group to which they belong. Because of this threat, a person’s attention, our splits between the task at hand and their anxieties,
often causing them to behave in ways that confirm the very stereotypes at the root of their anxieties.


Dislike of or prejudice against people from other countries.